Blue Skin Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Introduction    

The skin completely protects the body and is continuous with the membranes lining the body shape orifices. It protects the primary structures from injury and invasion by microbes.

Parasite infection.

  • Scabies

Superficial fungal infections.

  • Candidiasis

Superficial bacterial infections

  • Impetigo

Others

  • Acne
  • Psoriasis
  • Atopic dermatitis

Parasite infection.

      Scabies

  • Scabies is a skin infection commonly found in school-going children.
  • It is produced by the burrowing action of a parasite insect mite in the epidermis.
  • It results in irritation and formation of vesicles, caves, and pustules.

Mode of transmission:-

      Direct

  • Skin-to-skin contact with infected persons.

      Indirect

  • Contact of infected person’s clothing and bed linen.

I had earlier shared What Is Acne Vulgaris?: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Home Remedies I hope you read.

 

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Types

Classical scabies

  • Papules and burrows may be present in the fingers’ spaces, the ulnar border of the hand, wrists, the ulnar border of the forearms, elbows, nipples, and breasts. 

Animals scabies 

  • Contact with an animal cat or dog 
  • Nodular scabies: Develop into nodules
  • Causes Low socio-economic status.
  • Less personal hygiene
  • Overcrowded
  • Contact with infected persons and clothing and bleeding
  • Infectious disease transmitted from one person to another person.

Incubation period

  • 4 to 6 weeks

I  have already covered :

Incubation Period Covid: How Long Is The Incubation Period For Covid?

Sign and Symptoms

  • Itching as followed by skin lesion as papules and vesicles.
  • Gray or tortuous white thread like the line founds in older children between the fingers in the wrist and axillaries or buttocks folds.
  • Skin lesions are also found in the genital area of male and female breasts, knees, elbows, and ankles or may occur in any part of the body.

Diagnostic Evaluation

  • History collection
  • Physical examinations
  • Microscopic examination of the skin.
  • Biopsy
  • Identification of mite ova or its faces from a skin scraping

Management

It includes…

  • Application of Scabicide agent.
  • The commonly used scabicidal is 25% benzyl benzoate diluted in calamine or water.
  • In small children, it is applied all over the body from neck to toes after a preliminary bath and removed after 24 hours.
  • 5% permethrin cream used for infants over two months and children.
  • It should be removed by bathing after 8 to 14 hours of application
  • Infected scabies should treat – info with suitable antimicrobial agents.
  • may give antihistaminic drugs if itching continues 2 to 3 weeks after the therapy.

Precaution

  • Should use Protective gloves during application.              
  • After treatment, all clothing, linen, and towel should boiled, sun-dried, and ironed to kill all mites.
  • Should access Side effects for the therapy and necessary treatment to be given.

Complication

  • Acute nephritis
  • Break the skin surface

Superficial Fungal Infections

  • Fungal infection of the skin may found in many forms. 
  • The common superficial fungal infections are candidiasis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis.

Candidiasis

  • Candidiasis is a fungal poison caused by Candida Albicans that expected in early infancy.
  • The most common site of poison is the oral cavity and presents as verbal thrust.

Causes

Incubation period

  • 2 to 5 days 

Sign and symptoms

  • Pain 
  • Discomfort 
  • White plaques on the oral mucus membrane, gum, and the tongue 
  • Difficulty in swallowing 
  • Diarrhea
  • Sometimes whitish patches on the skin of the vaginal area. 
  • Pain during urination, fever 

Diagnostic Evaluation

  • History collection 
  • Physical examination 
  • Saliva test 
  • Blood test 
  • Microscopic examination 

Management

  • Local application of nystatin, clotrimazole, amphotericin b, ketoconazole 
  • Provide any antifungal agents suitable for children. 

Precaution

  • Explain about to improve hygiene. 
  • Application of local antifungal preparations should b demonstrated, especially oral suspension, apply the inner side of the mouth after feeding, and retain the medication as long as possible in the mouth. 

Complication

Dermatophytosis(Ringworm Infections)

Types

     Tinea capitis 

  • It is a fungal poison of the scalp due to micro sporum. 
  • It founds in children between 3 To 10 years of age. 
  • The lesions appear on the scalp as round seborrhoea-like patches with loss of hair and breakage of hair. 

     Tinea corpories

  • Fungal infection of glabrous skin usually due to micro sporum. 
  • It present with multiple small red round patches studded with minute vesicles on any part of the body. 

     Tinea cruris

  • is the genitocrural region founds in obese male children? 

     Tineapedis

  • It is a superficial fungal poison of the skin of the foot, especially between the toes and the soles, due to eoidermophyton

Superficial Bacterial Infections

Impetigo

  • It is the most common bacterial skin poison characterized by the formation of vesicles, pustules, crusts. 
  • Causative organisms are:- 
  • Staphylococcus aureus. 
  • Streptococcus pyogenes. 

Causes

  • Poor personal hygiene 
  • Low social, economic status 
  • Other skin infection 
  • Spared through contaminated clothes or another close contact 

Incubation period

  • 10 days 

Signs & symptoms

  • Lymph gland enlargement. 
  • Pink-red macules. 
  • Bullous lesions may develop, commonly found on the face, axilla, and groin. 
  • A red sore that quickly ruptures. 
  • Itching, painless. 
  • Diagnostic evaluation:-
  • History collection. 
  • Physical examination
  • lab test 

Management

  • Impetigo has done by gentle washing of affected area with soap and water thrice 
  • A day and removal of crusts and removal of debris by normal saline or candy’s lotion. 
  • Application of topical antibacterial and systemic antibiotics (cephalosporins, erythromycin) are essential. 

Precaution

  • Should avoid Close contact with another child to prevent the spread of infection 
  • Autoinoculation is controlling by frequent handwashing, short nails, daily soap water bathing, and regular laundry of contaminated towels, linen, and clothing. 

Complications

Other Skin Disorders

  • Acne 
  • Psoriasis 
  • Atopic dermatitis 

Acne

  • Acne is an inflammatory skin disease manifested as pleomorphic eruption usually seen over the face, trunk, and rarely on arms, legs, and buttocks. 
  • It is most commonly found in adolescence and rarely in childhood 
  • There are several varieties of acne, such as acne vulgaris, steroid acne.

Causes

  • Commonly caused by 
  • Staphylococcus epidemics. 
  • Propionibacterium acne
  • Too much oil or sebum production 

 Sign and symptoms 

  • Lesions form on the face, neck, back, chest, shoulders
  • Facial flushing
  • Burning 
  • Small cysts 
  • Redness 

 Treatment

  • Anti-acne medicines(tretinoin) 
  • Antibiotics 
  • Apply the cream to dry clean skin 

 Precaution

  • Do not apply the cream to eyes, mouth, angle of the nose, and mucous membrane 
  • Avoid frequent face wash (not more than three times) 
  • Do not use skin preparations like aftershave, lotion, menthol 

Psoriasis

  • Psoriasis is a chronic, noninfectious, recurrent erythematous inflammatory disorder involving keratin synthesis. 
  • It is characterized by raised, reddened, round circumscribed plaques covered by silvery-white scales. 

Causes of psoriasis

Sign and symptoms

  • Lesions occur on the scalp, elbows, knees, genitalia. 
  • Itching 
  • Nails appear in yellow or brown discoloration. 
  • Pustular lesions occur on palms and soles. 

Treatment

  • Topical medicine forex;corticosteroid. 
  • Photochemotherapy and ultraviolet light also use.. 

Atopic Dermatitis

  • Atopic dermatitis is also known as infantile or childhood eczema

Causes of atopic dermatitis

  • Depressed cell-mediated immunity
  • Elevated IgE levels 
  • Increased histamine sensitivity 

Sign and symptoms 

  • Papule formation 
  • Dryness and scaling of the extensor surfaces of the arms, wrists, and legs 
  • Itching 
  • Red, crusting rash appear

Management

  • Hydrates and lubricants apply daily to the skin to avoid excessive drying and cracking. 
  • Allergens should be known and avoided 
  • Wet soaks can do provided to the patient 
  • should avoid Food allergens ex egg, cow’s milk, soy, wheat, nuts. 
  • Antihistamine & antibiotics are prescribes 

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