Surgery to Diagnose and stage cancer
- The type of tissue taken from the sample to tell if cancer is present or growth is cancerous or noncancerous.
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy
- A skinny needle is attached to a syringe to pull out a small amount of tissue. If the tumor is not felt, can guide the hand into the tumor by looking at an imaging test, like USG or CT scan.
Core needle biopsy
- This biopsy uses a slightly larger number of the needle to take out some tissue.
Excisional or incisional biopsy
- A surgeon cuts through the skin for this biopsy to remove the entire tumor(excisional biopsy), a small part of the tumor ( incisional biopsy). They can often do with regional or local anesthesia.
Open surgical exploration
Primary tumor resection
- If the tumor has not spread, then surgery is needed. Surgery is done when cancer is found in only one area.
- The main aim of primary tumor resection is to remove the entire tumor, including the surrounding structure and lymph nodes.
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In laser surgery, the high-frequency beam is used to kill cancerous cells.
Some cancers of the cervix, voice box, liver, and lung are also treated by laser surgery.
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- Aliquid nitrogen spray or freezing probe to freeze and kill abnormal cells. This technique is sometimes used to treat a pre-cancerous condition such as those affecting the skin, cervix, and penis.
- high-frequency electrical rays are used to killed cancerous cells, mainly used for skin and mouth cancers.
- It is known as microscopic surgery. It is used to remove certain skin cancers.
- When curative resection is not possible, surgical resection is considered soothing, preventing the advanced disease.
- Tumor resection may be indicated to control the pain, reduce bleeding risk, or relieve the vital organ’s obstruction.
- Nutritional supplementation with feeding gastrostomy may be necessary if a proximal obstruction exists.
- Preventive surgery is done to remove the body tissue that is likely to become cancer ( malignant) even it is not a sign of cancer at the time of surgery.
- Sometimes, prophylactic surgery is to remove the entire organ when a person has an inherited condition.
Debulking surgery (cytoreductive surgery)
- Cytoreduction is a surgical resection to reduce the tumor burden. It is done to remove some, but not all, of the tumor.
- It is used for the advanced cancer of the ovary.
- It improves the Reconstructive surgery improves the way a person’s skin looks After cancer surgery or restore the body’s function.
- e.g., breast reconstruction after mastectomy or the use of tissue flaps, bone graft.
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