Glomerulonephritis : Symptoms, Causes, Test and Treatment

Glomerulonephritis is inflammation in the kidney’s internal structure called the glomeruli. Due to which the kidney is not able to do its work correctly, and the person suffering from it may also have kidney failure.

It is a severe sickness that can be life-threatening, and it requires instant treatment.

This condition of disease is also known as bright disease. Inflammation of the glomeruli, built in your kidneys, is made up of mini(small) blood vessels.

This bond of vessels helps filter our blood and remove unnecessary fluids. In case our glomeruli are injured or damaged, both your kidneys will stop working correctly, and you can go into kidney failure conditions.


It is a complex immune disease due to an antigen-antibody reaction following hemolytic streptococcal infection.

acute glomerulonephritis
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Table of Contents


  • School-age children. 
  • Rare in younger children than the age of 2. 
  • More frequently in males than in females.

Common causes of glomerulonephritis

  • Acute GN can be a response to an infection like, strep throat, Absence tooth  
  • Patients suffer may be a problem with the immune system overreacting to the infection.
  • Antibodies attack your kidneys and lungs.
  • Heavy use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, like naproxen, ibuprofen may also massive risk factor.
  • Antigen-antibody reaction is secondary to infection (Haemolytic streptococcal infection).

Acute GN symptoms

  • High BP (blood pressure)
  • Foamy urine due to intake of more protein
  • Swelling on face, feet, hand
  • Puffiness abdomen
  • You are urinating less frequently—blood in urine which turn your dark urine color like a rust color.


  • Present in most patients.
  • Usually mild.
  • Commonly manifested by periorbital edema in the morning.
  • It may appear only as rapid weight gain.
  • Generalized and influenced by posture may be present.


  • Present in more than 50% of patients.
  • Usually mild.
  • The rise in BP may be sudden.
  • Usually appear during the first 4-5 days of the illness.


  • Mild headache.
  • GI disturbances, especially anorexia and vomiting.
  • Fever may or may not be present.
  • Children look pale, lethargic, and irritable.

Also see: Constant Headache And Fatigue Every Day: How to cure?

Diagnostic evaluation: - Urinalysis

  • Decreased output (oliguria) – may approach in anuria.
  • Hematuria.
  • Specific gravity- moderately elevated.
  • Proteinuria may be mild to severe.
  • Microscopic- red blood cells, leucocytes, epithelial cells.
  • Flow urinary sodium
  • BUN: -creatinine – usually mildly to moderately elevated in 50% of patients.
  • The Antistreptolysin titer is elevated.
  • The Erythrocyte sedimentation rate also elevated.
  • Serum albumin test.
  • Electrocardiography.
  • Chest X-ray- pulmonary congestion, a cardio enlargement during the edematous phase.

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  • There is no specific treatment for AGN.
  • Patients need proper medication or even temporary treatment with an artificial kidney machine to remove unnecessary fluid and control kidney failure and heavy blood pressure.
  • Antibiotics are generally not used for AGN, but sometimes they are important to treating diseases related to bacterial infection.
  • Incase your sickness is getting worse rapidly, then maybe you put on high doses of medicines that affect your immune system very badly.
  • Doctors try to remove excess or harmful protein from your blood. 
  • It is self-limiting, and patients recover within two to three weeks.
  • Death may be due to complications.

Supportive treatment

  • Antibiotics, e.g., Penicillin, may be given to treat the infection. Give antihypertensive drugs.
  • Give magnesium sulfate to reduce cerebral edema & encephalopathy.
  • Sedatives give to reduce restlessness.
  • Cardiac failure means to give digitalis.
  • If end-stage means advice for dialysis

Parental advice

  • Parental should be taught about the early signs of complications and the importance of first treatment.
  • Proper care of the skin and timely treatment of the skin lesions should be explained.
  • Prompt consideration of the respiratory problems should be insisted on.
  • Parents should be instructed about the follow-up visits.


Chances of these diseases to occur if you do not take the right treatment at the right time.

  • Kidney failure
  • Heart failure
  • Uremia
  • Anemia
  • Hypertension

Here are couple of articles, which you should definitely read to learn about kidney disease

I tried to cover as much as I could for Glomerulonephritis, but if you still have a question in your mind, feel free to give us comment.

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