Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defect Repair

What is Atrioventricular Canal Defect? 

It happens when there is a hole between the heart’s chambers.

AVC defect makes problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart.

Atrioventricular septal defect or atrioventricular canal defect is present at birth time.

It is an incomplete fusion of the endocardial cushions(muscles) consists of a low ASD( Atrial septal defect) that is continuous with a high VSD( ventricular septal defect) and clefts of the mitral and tricuspid valves.

It creates a large central atrioventricular (AV) valve that allows blood to flow between the heart’s four chambers.

The direction and pathways of flows are determined by pulmonary and systemic resistance, left and right ventricular pressure, and the compliance of each chamber, although flow is generally from left to right 

It is a common cardiac defect in children with down syndrome.

apical muscular ventricular septal defect
Design by kjpargeter / Freepik

Table of Contents

Signs and symptoms

The size of the septal(valve) opening affects the type and severity of symptoms.

Loud systolic sound

Mild cyanosis (discoloration of the skin) and that increases when deficiency of oxygen occurs. 

Other symptoms are…

Fatigue(tiredness), pale skin, cold skin, rapid breathing, 

Sweating, heavy breathing, fast heart rate, congested breathing, disinterest in feeding, low weight gain.

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Atrioventricular canal defect medical management

Medical management : Before medical supervision, the severity of the baby’s disease should be checked, and a child’s tolerance for specific medications should be checked

Medication is as below…….

DIGOXIN : It helps strengthen the heart muscle enabling it to pump more efficiently

DIURETICS : The body’s water balance can be affected when the heart is not working as well as it could help the kidneys remove excess fluid from the body

ACE(Angiotensin-converting enzyme)  

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Complete atrioventricular canal defect repair

Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defects require surgery, generally within the first two to four months of life. The surgeon closes the large hole with one or two patches. The patches attach to the heart muscle, and as the baby grows, the tissue grows on the patches. And slowly heals.

This process should be done as soon as possible so that it does not cause significant problems in the long run.

(In surgical process repair consists of patch closure of the septal defects and reconstruction of the AV valve tissue (either repair of mitral valve cleft or fashioning of two AV valves).

  • Palliative : Pulmonary artery banding in occasionally done in small infect with severe symptoms; complete repair in infancy is the most common.
  • Postoperative complications include heart block. CHF, Mitral regurgitation, Dysrhythmias, and pulmonary hypertension.

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