In congestive heart failure (Acute congestive heart failure), our heart does not get the blood as per needs. Due to which the heart is not able to pump the blood as per the heart requirement. The heart does not stop working entirely, but the heart does not work to the best of its ability.
The heart is the primary and vital organ of the body, and it has four chambers, two atrium, and two ventricles. If there are any problems in our ventricles, they do not supply enough blood to the body organs. It is also known as “Heart failure.”
Systolic failure is a much more common clinical problem. Congestive cardiac failure is a typical child emergency. It indicates a low cardiac output.
And now we see about the Congestive Heart Failure’s Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and prognosis.
Table of Contents
Causes Of congestive heart failure
- Arterial septal defects.
- Ventricular septal defects
- Coarctation of aorta
- Hyperplasia of heart tissues
- It may result due to congenital heart disease
- Acquired heart disease:- like Acute rheumatic fever heart disease, Myocarditis or myocardial failure, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, paroxysmal supraventricular, tachycardia.
- Chronic pulmonary disease
- Respiratory infection, anemia, Nephrotic syndrome, iatrogenic fluid overload, severe electrolyte disturbance.
- The Heart fails to pump blood supply
- Pattern ductus arteriosis in the blood vessels between the aorta and pulmonary artery of the lungs closes in fetal life. If it does not close, then it will pump a large amount of blood to the lungs.
Pathophysiology of congestive heart failure
- Inadequate supply of oxygen to the tissues.
- The heart rate increases to enhance cardiac output, which results in increased stroke volume.
- The systemic vascular resistance increased to maintain blood pressure.
- Reduced blood flow to the kidney.
- Decrease glomerular filtration rate and tubular reabsorption.
- Causing sodium and water retention.
- Edema and diminished urine output.
- Increased venous pressure due to weak contraction of a failing heart results in venous congestion and edema.
- The pulmonary system becomes congested.
- In chronic long term illness myocardial failure, myocardial hypertrophy, and chamber dilation.
- Progressive heart failure.
Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure
- Poor weight gain
- Difficulty in feeding
- Breathes too fast; breaths better held against the shoulder
- Persistent cough and wheezing
- Irritability, excessive perspiration and restlessness, feeding difficulty
- Pedal edema, abdominal discomfort, anorexia
- Cool extremities
I also wrote a article on When To Go To The Hospital For Rapid Heart Rate? also you can read.
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Signs Of congestive heart failure in infants
Left-sided Failure: Tachypnea, Tachycardia, Cough, Wheezing, Rales in Chest
Failure of Either Side: Cardiac enlargement, Gallop rhythm, peripheral cyanosis, small volume pulse, absent of weight gain
Right side Failure: Hepatomegaly, Facial Edema, Jugular Venous, Engorgement, Edema on Feet
Types Of congestive heart failure
There are two types of Congestive Cardiac Failure
In that Heart can’t fill enough blood between beats due to left ventricular heart muscle become very stiff.
Systolic heart failure
Occurs due to the left ventricle failing to contract, and due to that, the heart cannot push healthy blood into the circulation or cant “pump out” the blood.
Management of congestive heart failure
- To correct the low cardiac output of the heart.
- Improving cardiac performance by reducing heart size and correcting the cause of heart failure
- With bed rest in propped up position (45`)and restricting activities
- To provide oxygen therapy to the tissues.
- Sedatives should administer to manage restlessness and to reduce anxiety.
- Diuretics given orally or parenterally (0.5-1.5 mg/kg)
- Iron supplement needed for correction of anemia
- Vasodilator and ACE inhibitors can reduce cardiac work.
- Diet should be planned with low salt for sodium restriction and to be given in a small amount frequently.
- It may not be easy to maintain to low-salt diet in infant.
- Supportive nursing care should emphasize on skincare and other hygienic measures.
- Prevention of infection
- Fluid-electrolyte measure
For diet management must read:
- MRI of the heart
- Blood test
- Surgery may be required to replace the damaged valve.
Congestive heart failure prognosis
Heart Specialist full recovery depends on various things, such as how well a patient reacts to the medication. A minority of people with congestive heart failure need surgery, and some will never enjoy the high quality of life they did before their hearts failed. But many others will return to very nearly everyday life and levels of activity.
If there is even a slight problem, you should ask the Heart specialist immediately. The right decision at the right time can get you out of any trouble.
To learn more about heart disease, you can read suggested articles:
- Cardiogenic Shock vs Heart Failure
- All About Coronary Heart Disease
- Atrial Septal Defect Murmur? All About Atrial Septal Defect
- Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defect Repair
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