Tardive Dyskinesia Vs Extrapyramidal Symptoms
Tardive dyskinesia is the symptom of extrapyramidal symtoms. Extrapyramidal is the side effect of antipsychotic drugs.
It is an abnormal, irregular choreoathetosis movement of the muscles of the limb, trunk, and head.
Table of Contents
Adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs
- Induced Parkinsonism Symptoms include rigidity, tremors, bradykinesia, stooped posture, drooling, akinesia, ataxia, etc. The disorder can treat with Anticholinergic agents.
- Akathisia is a feeling of muscular discomfort that makes the patients restless and generally feels dysphoric.
- It is an abnormal, irregular choreoathetosis movement of the muscles of the limb, trunk, and head. It is characterized by sucking, chewing, and peri-oral movements, Grimacing.
- Dystonic movements results from a slow, sustained muscular spasm that leads to an involuntary action.
- Dystonia includes the tongue, neck, jaw, and entire body.
- Upward movements of the eyeball called an oculogyric crisis. Dystonia can be treated by beta-adrenergic. antagonists, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, antihistaminics, dopamine agonists, etc.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
- This is a rare but severe disorder in a small minority of patients taking neuroleptics, especially high-potency compounds.
- The onset is often, but not invariably, in the first ten days of treatment. The clinical picture includes the rapid onset (usually over 24-72hours) of severe motor, mental and autonomic disorders. The prominent motor symptom is generalized muscular hypertonicity.
- The mental symptoms include akinetic mutism, stupor, or impaired consciousness. Hyperpyrexia.
- disturbances in the form of unstable blood pressure, tachycardia, excessive sweating.
- Salivation and urinary incontinence. In the blood, Creatinine Phospho Kinase[CPK]levels may be raised to very high levels, and the white cell count may increase. Secondary.
- Features may include pneumonia, thromboembolism, cardiovascular collapse, and renal failure.
- Dry mouth, constipation, cycloplegia, mydriasis, urinary retention.
- Orthostatic hypotension, impotence, and impaired ejaculation.
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Other Side Effects
- Weight gain
- Dermatological effects(contact dermatitis,
- Photosensitive reaction)
- Agranulocytosis (especially for clozapine)
- Sialorrhea or increased Salivation
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