What Are The Final Stages Of Cirrhosis Of The Liver?

Cirrhosis is described as an irreversible chronic injury of the hepatic parenchyma.

Cirrhosis is a progressive disease and developing slowly over many years. It is allowed to continue, and the buildup of scar tissue can eventually stop liver function.

cirrhosis of the liver
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Table of Contents

Causes of cirrhosis

The common causes of cirrhosis are long-term viral hepatitis C infection and chronic alcohol abuse.

  • Hepatitis B and C infection
  • Toxic metals
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Bad reactions to certain medications
  • Digestive disorder
  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
  • Blockage of the bile ducts

I have already covered Is Hepatitis A Virus Or Bacteria? | All About Hepatitis Viruses in depth:

Symptoms of cirrhosis

The early stages of cirrhosis symptoms are not typical.

  • Insomnia
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Itchy skin
  • Fatigue
  • Blood capillaries become visible on the skin on the upper abdomen.

Some symptoms may appear as liver cirrhosis progresses:

  • Bleeding gums
  • Confusion
  • Accelerated heartbeat
  • Dizziness
  • Hair loss
  • Jaundice
  • Nosebleeds
  • Personality changes


Final stages of cirrhosis of the liver?

Cirrhosis itself is a sign that liver damage has entered a late stage. At the end of cirrhosis, it becomes difficult for the injured tissue to heal.

In cirrhosis, signs of late-stage liver disease complication develop. Liver transplantation is the only solution for this.

Stage 1 

At this stage, there are some symptoms in the liver along with the symptoms.

Stage 2

Your portal blood pressure worsens at this stage of cirrhosis.

Stage 3

At this stage, along with the scar in the liver, there is swelling in the abdomen. There is a possibility of liver failure.

Stage 4

Your life may be in danger at this stage of cirrhosis, and liver transplantation is advisable.

Alcoholic liver disease

  • Fatty liver
  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatitis

Sign and Symptoms

  • Exhaustion
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal pain 
  • Spider-like blood vessels (spider angiomas) that develop on the skin 
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Weakness

Investigations- Alcoholic cirrhosis

  • Prolonged Prothrombin Time
  • Decreased serum albumin, increased serum globulin.
  • Leucopenia and thrombocytopenia during hypersplenism.
  • Glucose intolerance (insulin resistance)
  • Elevated ammonia level in hepatic encephalopathy
  • Hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, hyponatremia, hypokalaemia, respiratory alkalosis
  • Ultrasonography – liver size, echotexture.
  • Liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.


  • Basis of signs and symptoms
  • Laboratory tests
  • The medical history
  • Physical examination
  • Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, 
  • Ultrasound
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 
  • Laparoscope
  • Liver biopsy 

Treatment – Alcoholic cirrhosis

  • Treatment is purely symptomatic
  • Alcohol should be forbidden
  • Diet enriched with proteins and amino acids
  • Drugs manage with caution.

Post necrotic cirrhosis

  • It is an extensive loss of liver cells that is hepatocytes. 


  • Hepatitis B, C
  • Chronic active hepatitis
  • Drugs and toxins (arsenicals, INH, methotrexate, methyldopa).
  • Alcoholic and primary biliary cirrhosis lead to post necrotic cirrhosis in late stages.

Also see: Is Hepatitis A Virus Or Bacteria?

Cardiac cirrhosis

  • Prolonged severe right-sided stuffed heart failure leads to dilation and engorgement of hepatic sinusoids.
  • Nutmeg liver macroscopically.
  • Liver extends, firm, non-tender, and non-pulsatile despite TR. Signs of right heart failure.
  • Mild elevation of serum bilirubin and serum AST levels.
  • Treatment of underlying cardiac disorder.

Complications of cirrhosis

  • Portal Hypertension
  • Ascites
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
  • Heptocellular carcinoma
  • Coagulopathy


How cirrhosis is diagnosed

There are few symptoms of cirrhosis; the diagnosis is made when the patient is being tested for some disease.

Discuss with your family doctor if you have any of the following symptoms

  • Blood in vomit
  • Fever with shivering
  • Difficulty in breath
  • A dark and tarry stool

A doctor will examine the patient, and the patient will be asked about their medical history and lifestyle, including drinking.

The doctor will also ask you to do something which is below,

  • Blood test
  • Biopsy
  • Imaging tests
  • Endoscopy

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Cirrhosis treatment

The treatment of liver cirrhosis depends on its cause and whether there are any complications or not.

As liver cirrhosis progresses, the patient may require additional treatment and hospitalization to manage complications. Its treatment may include.

  • Treatment for alcohol dependency
  • Medications
  • Screening for liver cancer
  • Antibiotics for infection
  • Banding

When all treatments have failed, liver transplantation is the only option.

Patients with cirrhosis should not take alcohol over-the-counter medicines without consulting their doctor.


The survival rate of a person with liver cirrhosis is dependent on the severity of the disease.

Cirrhosis is a severe condition that reduces life expectancy and affects the quality of life.

It is good to keep a person with cirrhosis away from alcohol.

To learn more, you can read: Portal Hypertension: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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