Gastro Intestinal Bleeding: Symptoms, Causes, Test and Treatment

(Last Updated On: December 18, 2021)

Bleeding that happens in the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, is called G.I. bleeding.

G.I. bleeding can range from microscopic and massive bleeding.

Microscopic bleeding can be trace by laboratory testing.

Massive bleeding pure blood is move vomit and stool contain blood.

This severity of G.I. bleeding varies among individual depending on the cause.

To get started, you’ll need to learn : All About Gastritis

Gestro Intestinal Bleed
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Table of Contents


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

  • U.G.I.B. originates in the first part of the stomach or.
  • Duodenum. (U.G.I.B.) it is a common medical condition that results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and medical care cost. It commonly presents with hematemesis (vomiting of blood or coffee ground-like material) and melena (black, tarry stools).

Lower GI Bleeding

  • Originates in the portions of the farther down the digestive system the segment of the small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
  • Diverticular disease, angiodysplasia, polyps hemorrhoids anal fissures most commonly Causes the bleeding.
  • Blood in the stool can result from cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and infectious diarrhea..

Causes for upper G.I. bleeding

  • Peptic ulcer.
  • Gastritis.
  • Esophageal varices.
  • Cancers.
  • Inflammation of the G.I. lining.

Causes for lower G.I. bleeding

  • Gastrointestinal cancer.
  • Infection.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Polyps.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Fissures.

Signs and symptoms

  • Coffee ground vomitus.
  • Black, tarry stools.
  • Melena.
  • Decreased B/P.
  • Vertigo.
  • Drop-in Hct, Hgb.
  • Confusion.
  • Dyspepsia.
  • Epigastric pain.
  • Heartburn.
  • Diffuse abdominal pain.
  • Dysphagia.
  • Weight loss.
  • Jaundice.


  • History.
  • Blood C.B.C., stool, vomitus studies.
  • Endoscopy.
  • Abdominal ct scan.
  • Ab. M.R.I.
  • X-RAY.
  • Angiography.
  • Bleeding scan.

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The goal of the treatment of G.I. bleeding is to prevent or treat hypovolemic shock and prevent dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and further bleeding.

Medical Management


Omeprazole and pantoprazole for upper G.I. Source, PPI reduce gastric acid production and enhance healing of bleeding

Antibiotic therapy

For lower G.I. Bleeding:- colonoscopy, angiography An angiography to inject medicine or other material into blood vessels to control. some types of bleeding If endoscopy and angiography do not work the.

the patient may need other treatments or surgery to stop the bleeding 

Treatment option depending on the Source of G.I. bleeding

  1. Endoscopic thermal probe:- Can treat bleeding ulcer and other abnormalities by burning the blood vessel or abnormal tissue.
  1. Argon plasma coagulation andRadio-frequency ablation:- It treats the abnormal blood vessels in the small intestine and colon.
  2. Endoscopic clip:- Used to close the bleeding vessels or other defective tissue.
  3. Endoscopic band ligation:- Used notable rubber bands to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and bleeding vessels In the esophagus.
  1. Endoscopic cryotherapy:- Freezes abnormal blood vessel in the stomach.
  2. Angiographic embolization:- Injects particles into a blood vessel directly to stop bleeding.

Treatment includes the following:

  • Secure the airway crystalloid fluid given For high-risk peptic ulcer patients, high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors.

Upper G.I. Bleed:

  • Treatment Volume replacement.
  • Crystalloids- normal saline.
  • Blood transfusions.

Naso gastric lavage:

  • Endoscopic treatment of bleeding ulcer
  • Sclerotherapy-injecting bleeding ulcer with necrotizing agent to stop bleeding.

Surgical intervention:

  • Removal of part of the stomach.

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Do you have any questions about choosing the best treatment for early and long lasting recovery? Ask in the comments!

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