How Do I Know If I Am Having A Stroke | Symptoms Of A Stroke

A stroke is an obstruction of the blood supply to any part of the brain resulting in a sudden brain function loss.

It occurs when the brain’s blood flow stops and oxygen cannot rich up to the brain part. The lack of oxygen may damage or kill brain cells.

Death of part of the brain may lead to loss of the body’s specific function controlled by the affected region.

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symptoms of a stroke
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Table of Contents

Types of stroke

Ischemic stroke

It happens due to a blood clot in the brain’s blood vessels.

It can happen due to cerebral thrombosis or cerebral embolism.

Hemorrhagic stroke:

It happens due to a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain.

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Causes of stroke

Cerebral thrombosis: A blood clot (thrombus) forms in one of the arteries that supply blood to your brain, reducing the blood supply.

Cerebral embolism: An embolic stroke occurs when a blood clot or other debris forms away from your brain, commonly in your heart, and is swept through your bloodstream to lodge in narrower brain arteries. 

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Cerebral hemorrhage: Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in your brain leaks or ruptures.

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Risk factors

  • High blood pressure
  • Heart diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking. When you smoke, you damage your blood vessels and raise your blood pressure
  • A personal or family history of stroke 
  • Ag.
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Alcohol and illegal drug use
  • Not getting enough physical activity
  • High cholesterol
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Having obesity
  • High blood cholesterol level

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How Do I Know If I Am Having A Stroke

Symptoms of a Stroke

The symptoms of stroke often happen quickly they include:

  • Changes in alertness (altered level of consciousness)
  • weakness of the face, arm, or leg
  • Sudden difficulty walking,
  • Dizziness
  • loss of balance or coordination 
  • Sudden confusion
  • Trouble speaking
  • Sudden vision loss
  • Sudden severe headache

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Diagnosis

  • Complete physical and neurological examination
  • CT SCAN
  • MRI
  • CT SCAN with angiography
  • Cerebral Angiogram
  • Heart tests like ECG AND Echocardiogram
  • Laboratory test LIKE-CBC, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, cardiac enzymes.

Complications

  • Loss of muscle movement
  • Paralysis
  • Difficulty talking or swallowing. Memory loss or thinking difficulties 
  • Emotional problems 
  • Pain
  • Changes in behavior and self-care ability.

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Treatment

It is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can save a life.

Medical management:

  • Thrombolytic therapy
  • Anticoagulant
  • Managing other medical problem: antihypertensive, antidiabetic, analgesics, Cholesterol-lowering agents, oxygen inhalation, electrolyte balance.

Surgical management:

  • For hemorrhagic stroke, open brain surgery must remove a blood clot from the brain and repair damaged blood vessels.
  • Carotid endarterectomy. It removes the plaques from arteries that run along each side of your neck to your brain (carotid arteries). 

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Rehabilitation

  • Occupational therapy
  • Physical therapy
  • Speech therapy

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Prevention

  • Controlling high blood pressure (hypertension.)
  • Get blood pressure checked regularly.
  • Lowering the amount of cholesterol from the diet.
  • Quitting tobacco use and maintaining a healthy weight.
  • Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

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