If you think that your child has low intelligence, logic power, and grasping capability, then there are possible chances of intellectual disability or mental retardation.
A person with mental retardation learns new skills very slowly.
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Is autism an intellectual disability?
These conditions are now called Autism Spectrum Disorders. Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by specific limitations in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, covering everyday social and practical aspects.
Types of intellectual disability
There are four types category of Intellectual disability:
Mild Mental Retardation
The person has an IQ range of 50 to 70. The person learns a new skill, develops good social and communication skills, and has little or no need for supervision. A person has a mindset as equal to an ordinary STD 6th student.
Moderate Mental Retardation
The person has an IQ range of 35 to 50. The person learns new skills through extra effort. A person can do semi-skilled or unskilled work under supervision and has a mindset equal to an ordinary STD 2nd student.
Severe Mental Retardation:
The person has an IQ range of 20 to 35. The person learns new skills very slowly. A person is dependable on others.
Profound Mental Retardation:
The person has an IQ range of below 20—nursing care required in profound mental retardation.
Causes of intellectual disability
Main cause of intellectual disability:
- premature birth
- Alcohol or drugs addiction during pregnancy
- Oxygen deprivation during delivery
- Mercury Poisoning
- Brain injury
- Mentally disturbance due to accident or death of a loved one.
- Genetic factor-like down syndrome, cat cry syndrome.
Symptoms of intellectual disability
- Failure to achieve developmental milestones
- Inabilities to follow commands or direction
- Reduced ability to learn Expressive language
- Psychomotor skill deficit
- Neurologic impairment
- A medical problem such as seizure
- Low self-esteem, depression
- Irritability when upset
- Acting out behavior
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Diagnosis of intellectual disability
- History collection
- Physical examination
- Neurological examination
- Mental Status Examination
- Milestone development
- Blood, MRI, EEG, CT scan Investigations
- Urine Physical examination
- Neurological examination
Treatment of intellectual disability
- Helps the parents develop coping skill and deal with anger
- Continuous Supervision
- Monitoring the child’s need and problem
- Planning Program for speech, language, and self-care learning
- medication, in some cases
- Genetic counseling of parent before and during pregnancy
- immunization for rubella vaccine during pregnancy
- Analysis of fetus for the genetic disorder during pregnancy
Avoid alcohol and drugs
- Injection gamma globulin which can prevent Rh-negative mother from developing antibodies
- Proper nutrition of the child during the first six month
- Avoidance of hazards such as lead poisoning accident
- Psychiatric treatment for emotional and behavioural difficulties
- Provision of education, training, occupation for each disabled person.
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When ID occurs with other serious problems, your child’s age is lower than average. However, if your child has a mild to moderate ID, they have an average life expectancy.
Support services are helpful to support an independent and accomplished live adult with ID.
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