Is Vitamin B12 Water Or Fat Soluble? | Is Vitamin D Water Or Fat Soluble?

We don’t need to remind you that focusing on your vitamin intake—essentially through your diet, with the support of multi-vitamins—is a good idea. But for several, how those vitamins are absorbed and metabolized is a bit of a question mark.

The way your body absorbs vitamins plays a huge role in efficacy and safety, which is why it can be helpful to understand the difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. So let’s talk about how water-soluble vitamins absorb into the body compared with fat-soluble vitamins, which vitamins are water-soluble vs. fat-soluble, and what’s worth knowing about each category.

I had earlier shared What Does Vitamin B Complex Do?. I hope you read the post.

Is Vitamin D Water Or Fat Soluble?
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Table of Contents

Is vitamin b12 water or fat-soluble?

To get started, you’ll need to: What Vitamins And Minerals Are Good For the Brain?

Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin generally present in some foods, added to other dietary supplements and prescription medication. Because vitamin B12 carries the mineral cobalt, compounds with vitamin B12 activity are collectively called “cobalamins.”

Fat-soluble vitamins are Vitamin A, D, K, and E. The body consumes these vitamins as it does dietary fats. They don’t dissolve in water.

I have already shared a post related to this topic How Many Mg Of Vitamin B12 Per Day? I hope you read this post.

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Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Vitamins are usually described based on their solubility.

Many of them dissolve in water and are called water-soluble vitamins. In contrast, there are four fat-soluble vitamins, which dissolve in oil (liquid fat).

9 water-soluble vitamins are found in the human diet:

I recommend you to read following posts that will help you: Does Biotin Make You Gain Weight?

Fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the human body. Therefore, you should also try to get them from your daily diet.

Also see this post: What Is Vitamin C Good For?

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Thiamine, known as vitamin B1, was the first water-soluble vitamin to be described scientifically.

Role and function

Thiamine works as a coenzyme in the body. This applies to its active forms, but thiamine pyrophosphate is the important one.

Thiamine is involved in chemical reactions. For instance, it helps turn nutrients into energy and supports sugar formation.

Recommended Intake

The table here shows the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for thiamine.

  

RDA (mg/day)

Infants

0–6 months

0.2*

 

7–12 months

0.3*

Children

1–3 years

0.5

 

4–8 years

0.6

 

9–13 years

0.9

Women

14–18 years

1.0

 

19+ years

1.1

Men

14+ years

1.2

Pregnancy

 

1.4

Lactation

 

1.4

Deficiency

Deficiency is rare, but high blood sugar levels increase thiamine elimination via urine, raising its requirements and the risk of deficiency. Thiamine levels may be reduced by 74–76% in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

People with alcoholism are also creased risk for deficiency because of a poor diet.

Serious deficiency leads to disorders known as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Side Effects and Toxicity

Thiamine is considering safe. There are no records of adverse effects after high amounts of thiamine from food and supplements.

This is partly because thiamine is quickly excreted from the body in urine.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Riboflavin is the water-soluble vitamin used as a food coloring.

Role and Function

Riboflavin functions as a coenzyme in chemical reactions.

Like thiamine, it is also involved in the conversion of nutrients into energy. It is required to convert vitamin B6 to its active form and convert tryptophan to niacin.

Recommended Intake

 

RDA (mg/day)

Infants

0–6 months

0.3*

 

7–12 months

0.4*

Children

1–3 years

0.5

 

4–8 years

0.6

 

9–13 years

0.9

Women

14–18 years

1.0

 

19+ years

1.1

Men

14+ years

1.3

Pregnancy

 

1.4

Lactation

 

1.6

Deficiency

Riboflavin deficiency is unusual in developed countries. However, a poor diet, lung diseases, and alcoholism increase the risk.

Critical deficiency results in a condition known as ariboflavinosis, characterized by a sore throat, inflamed tongue, anemia, and eye and skin problems.

It impairs the metabolism of vitamin B6 and the conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

Here are a few articles to check out:

Side Effects and Toxicity

High consumption of dietary or supplemental riboflavin has no known effects of toxicity.

Absorption becomes less effective at higher doses. Also, small amounts are stored in body tissues, and excess riboflavin is flushed out of the body with urine.

As a result, the safe upper consumption level of riboflavin has not been established

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

Niacin, known as vitamin B3, is the B vitamin your body can produce from a nutrient — the amino acid tryptophan.

Recommended Intake

 

RDA (mg/day)

UL (mg/day)

Infants

0–6 months

2*

 

7–12 months

4*

Children

1–3 years

6

10

 

4–8 years

8

15

 

9–13 years

12

20

Women

14+ years

14

30

Men

14+ years

16

30

Pregnancy

 

18

30–35

Lactation

 

17

30–35

Dietary Sources

Niacin is found in plants and animals. The chart here shows the niacin content of its best sources.

Yeast extract spread is especially rich in niacin, providing around 128 mg.

Other good sources include fish, eggs, chicken, dairy products, and mushrooms. In addition, niacin is added to breakfast cereals and flour.

Deficiency

Niacin deficiency, known as pellagra, is rare in developed countries.

The symptoms of pellagra include inflamed skin, diarrhea, mouth sores, insomnia, and dementia. Like all deficiency diseases, it is deadly without treatment.

Fortunately, you can get all the niacin you need from a varied diet.

Here are a few articles to check out:

Side Effects and Toxicity

Commonly occurring niacin from food does not appear to have adverse effects.

High supplemental doses of niacin cause niacin flush, vomiting, stomach irritation, nausea, and damaged liver.

Niacin flush is a side effect of nicotinic acid supplements. It is defined by a flush in the face, arms, neck, and chest.

Fat-soluble vitamins

To get started, everything you need to know: Vitamin A: How Much Vitamin A Is Too Much?

Vitamin A

Vitamin A helps maintain healthy eyesight. Without vitamin A, a person experience vision problems and vision loss.

Function

Vitamin A supports many functions throughout the body, including:

Dietary sources

  • Fish liver oil
  • Beef liver
  • Cheese, milk, and other dairy products
  • Sources of beta carotene include:
  • Sweet potato
  • Kale, spinach, and other green, leafy vegetables
  • Carrots
  • Cantaloupe
  • Black-eyed peas
  • Fortified breakfast cereals

Must read: How Can I Boost My Immune System?

Recommended intake

Age (years)

1–3

4–8

9–13

14 and over

Female

300

400

600

700

Male

300

400

600

900

Deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency is rare in Americans, but it can affect a person who:

  • Follows a plant-based diet

A deficiency can lead to a loss of night vision and a total loss of vision.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D has main roles in the body:

Is vitamin d water or fat-soluble?

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin already in a few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is produced endogenously when sunlight’s ultraviolet rays strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis.

Dietary sources

  • Oily fish and fish oils
  • Fortified dairy products, plant-based milk, and cereals
  • Beef liver
  • Eggs

Recommended intake

Experts include vitamin D in international units.

Current guidelines suggest that people of all ages intake 600 IU of vitamin D daily. However, this is hard to measure as it is not easy for a person to know how much vitamin D they get from sunlight.

Read: Does Vitamin D Help With Covid? 

Deficiency

  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteomalacia, when bones become soft
  • Rickets, when a child’s bones don’t develop as they should
  • Increased risk of disease

Overdose

It is unusual for a person to have vitamin D, but supplements could trigger this.

Vitamin E

Function

Several reasons why the body needs vitamin E are:

  • As an antioxidant
  • Boost immune system
  • To increase blood vessels and help prevent clotting

Dietary sources

  • Wheat germ oil
  • Kiwi fruit and mango
  • Almonds, hazelnuts, and peanuts
  • Spinach and broccoli
  • Sunflower seeds and oil

I also wrote an article on What Does Vitamin E Do? also you can read.

Recommended intake

Age (years)

1–3

4–8

9–13

14 and over

Female

6 mg (9IU)

7 mg (10.4 IU)

11 mg (16.4 IU)

15 mg (22.4 IU)

Male

6 mg (9IU)

7 mg (10.4 IU)

11 mg (16.4 IU)

15 mg (22.4 IU)

Deficiency

  • Muscle and nerve damage that affects movement and coordination
  • Vision problems
  • A weakened immune system

Conclusion

B12 is an important nutrient popularly used as a nutritional supplement, even by those without a B12 deficiency.

Most people can fill their B12 needs for a healthy diet. However, some, such as older adults or those with special dietary restrictions, should supplement.

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