Keratoconus Eye: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Surgery

Keratoconus is a situation in which the eye is not holding the round cornea. It is a non-inflammatory, usually bilateral disease that is familial but has no exclusive inheritance pattern.

It can be associated with Down syndrome, atopic dermatitis, Mar-fan syndrome, genetic (congenital absence of the iris), and retinitis pigmentosa (a hereditary disease characterized by bilateral primary degeneration of the retina childhood blindness by middle age).

It can be showing as 20 to 60 years of age.

The only symptom is blurred vision caused by variable astigmatism associated with the altered corneal shape.
Astigmatism is correct with contact lenses and eyeglasses.

prescription glasses for keratoconus
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Table of Contents

Causes of keratoconus

The cause of keratoconus is unknown. But its causes are probably present from the time of birth itself.

Keratoconus is thought to have a defect involved in collagen. Collagen is a tissue that forms the cornea.

Some researchers believe that allergies and eye rubbing may also be a cause of keratoconus.

When does the risk of getting keratoconus increase?

Some health issues increase the risk of getting keratoconus:

  • Retinitis pigmentosa down syndrome
  • Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
  • Fever
  • Asthma

I have already covered :


Symptoms of keratoconus

Symptoms commonly appear in teens or early adulthood. The condition of keratoconus continues to worsen for 10 to 20 years.

Keratoconus is usually not serious in older adults. The severity of keratoconus keeps on increasing, so people with it need to change their glasses frequently.

As the severity of keratoconus increases, so do its symptoms, such as:

Blurred vision, poor vision, hypersensitivity to bright light, glare, And it becomes difficult to drive at night.

Sudden loss of vision or blurred vision.

I also wrote a article: What is Refractive Error?: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Diagnosis of keratoconus

To test for keratoconus, doctors examine the cornea and determine how much of the cornea has protruded. Tests may also do Several different to confirm the test.

However, in most cases, a topography test is done to test for keratoconus. With the help of the topography test, the upper surface of the eye is examined for curvature, and a color map of the cornea is prepared.

Due to keratoconus, the shape of this map changes significantly, with the help of which doctors can test this disease.

Apart from this, some other techniques have also come, with the help of detecting keratoconus in less time than topography. Doctors performing laser surgery usually recommend these tests before laser vision surgery.

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If the keratoconus is not severe, using certain types of glasses and soft contact lenses may help.

But this disease continues to progress, and the cornea keeps on thinning, due to which its shape continues to be extraordinary. 

In such a situation, glasses and contact lenses may not help keep the symptoms of keratoconus away for a long time.


Corneal cross-linking: In this procedure, drops of riboflavin are injected into the cornea, and ultraviolet rays are also used.

Corneal cross-linking helps prevent progressive loss of vision by stabilizing the increasing curvature of the cornea in the early stages of keratoconus.


There are many types of surgical procedures possible to manage keratoconus, depending on the severity of the keratoconus and the location of the bulge in the cornea.

Corneal inserts: During this surgical procedure, doctors insert small, transparent, and moon-shaped plastic into the ringcornia.

This enlarges the cone-shaped ring, maintains the typical shape of the cornea, and improves vision.

Corneal transplant: If the cornea has become scarred or if the cornea has become very thin, then in such a situation, the doctor considers a corneal transplant.

The corneal transplant procedure is also called “keratoplasty.” In this procedure, the entire cornea is removed from the patient’s eye, and the cornea obtained from the donor is implanted.


A person needs a corneal transplant to restore their sight after a corneal injury or disease. A corneal transplant involves replacing all parts of the damaged cornea with donor corneal tissue.

Corneal transplants can also cause a lot of complications. The most common complication is tissue rejection. Other complications include infections, retinal detachment, and glaucoma

People should see a doctor immediately if they develop symptoms after a corneal transplant.

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