Leukemia Treatments, Definition, Symptoms, and Causes

Leukemia is a blood cancer It is characterized by abnormal production by reproduction of blood cells, normally white blood cells (white cells). This is a life-threatening disease, but we will see how to avoid it and what Leukemia treatment is.

Leukemia affects the bone marrows, spleen, and lymphatic systems.

In leukemia, there is immature production and abnormal WBCs.

WBCS plays a vital role in our body that protects our immune system against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. If there is any abnormality in the functioning of WBCS, then it causes leukemia. 

Causes of leukemia: Environmental and genetic factors are causing leukemia.

Leukemia treatments
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Table of Contents

Classification of leukemia

1.Acute lymphatic leukemia (80%)

  • It is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood that affects white blood cells.
  • It is the most common childhood cancer.
  • It includes thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutropenia like conditions.

Signs and symptoms of Acute lymphatic leukemia

2. Acute myeloid leukemia (10-20%)

It is an uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts, precursors of granulocytes.

There is hyperplasia of bone marrow.

Increase incidence in the early age of like or after 60 to 70 years of age.

Signs and symptoms of Acute myeloid leukemia

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Mouth sores 
  • Bleeding
  • Sternal tenderness
  • Minimal hepatosplenomegaly 

3. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

It is the typical type in adults.

The type of lymphocytes involved is usually B-cell.

The lymphocytes infiltrate the organ.

Signs and symptoms of  Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

4. Chronic Myelogenous leukemia

It can see in 25 to 60 years of life and nearly 45 years of age.

It occurs due to the excessive amount of mature neoplastic granulocytes cells in the bone marrow

Signs and symptoms of Chronic Myelogenous leukemia

  • No symptoms are earlier.
  • Fatigue
  • Sterna tenderness
  • Weight loss
  • Joint pain 
  • Pain in the bone
  • Increase in sweating

Causes of Chronic Myelogenous leukemia

  • Genetic and environmental factors
  • chromosomal abnormality
  • Chronic exposure to chemical (benzene)
  • Radiation exposure
  • Cytotoxic therapy of breast, lung and testicular cancer
  • Familial predisposition
  • Smoking
  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Infection

Signs and symptoms of leukemia

  • Swollen lymph nodes 
  • Recurrent chronic infections
  • Lymphadenopathy 
  • Hepatosplenomegaly 
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Bruise
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Bone or joint pain
  • Recurrent nosebleeds
  • Symptoms of anemia
  • Poor wound healing
  • Vomiting
  • Tiny red spots in skin (petechiae)
  • Recurrent nosebleeds
  • Symptoms of anemia 
  • Poor wound healing 
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Small red spots in skin (petechiae)
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • History collection
  • Physical examination
  • CBC
  • Peripheral blood smear
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Organ function test RFT, HFT, Electrolytes.

Leukemia treatments

Treatment for your leukemia depends on many circumstances. Your doctor suggests your leukemia treatment options based on your age and overall health condition.

Now we see common treatments used to fight leukemia.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a priority treatment for leukemia. This is used to kill leukemia cells.

Depending on the type of leukemia cell you have, you may get a single drug or a mixture of drugs. These drugs may come in tablet form, or they may be injected directly into a vein.

Radiation Therapy
With the help of radiation therapy, X-rays or other high-energy rays destroy leukemia cells stop their growth. During radiation therapy, you sleep on a table while a large machine moves around you, directing the radiation to particular points on your body.

You may receive radiation in one particular area of your body where there are several leukemia cells, or you may experience radiation over your entire body. This is a very effective method.

Bone marrow transplant

Also called stem cell transplantation. Helps re-establish healthy stem cells by replacing harmful bone marrow with leukemia-free stem cells to regenerate healthy bone marrow.

Before a bone marrow transplant, you receive very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy your leukemia-producing bone marrow. Then you receive an immersion of blood-forming stem cells that help reconstruct your bone marrow.

Or you can get a stem cell from a donor. If you get one, then you can use your stem cell.

Also see: Can Bone Marrow Transplant Changes DNA?

Immunotherapy

It is an effective treatment. Uses your immune system to fight against cancer. Your body’s immune system will not be able to attack your cancer because cancer cells produce proteins that help protect against immune cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with it.

Clinical trials

While clinical tests give you or your child a chance to try the latest cancer treatment, treatment benefits and risks may be unknown. Discuss the benefits and risks of clinical trials with your doctor. Clinical trials are experiments to test new cancer treatments and new ways of using existing treatments.

Biological therapy

In natural treatment, identify the immune system of your body, and it attacks the specific cells.

Targeted therapy

It attacks the specific leukemic cells and stops the action of the abnormal cells.

Combination chemotherapy

(Fludarabine + cyclophosphamide) It is the chemical drug given to kill the growth of the cancerous cells. 

Surgical management

Stem cell transplant: in that procedure, diseased bone marrow transplanted by the healthy bone marrow.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have given before to the stem cell transplant to kill the infected bone marrow cells.

Must read: Surgical Treatment of Cancer

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