Menstrual Disorder: Symptoms, Types, And Treatment

Menstruation, also called menstruation or periods in the common language. It is a part of every woman’s life. During this time, her body undergoes many physical, mental, and hormonal changes, about which she is often not fully understood and gets into trouble.

These are disruptive physical and emotional symptoms just before and during menstruation, including heavy bleeding, missed periods, and unmanageable mood swings.

Types of menstrual disorders:

1) Dysmenorrhea

2) Amenorrhea

3) Premenstrual syndrome


menstrual depression disorder
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 It is defined as abdominal cramping or discomfort associated with menstrual flow. And painful menstruation and the most common gynaecological dysfunction.

 There are mainly two types :

Primary dysmenorrhea

There are no pelvic lesions, usually intrinsic to the uterus.


  • Prostaglandin production by endometrium
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Obstructive and psychological factor

Secondary dysmenorrhea

Mainly caused by lesions like pelvic infection, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts.

Signs and Symptoms

  •  Recurrent, dull, crampy pain
  •  Nausea and vomiting
  •  Diarrhea
  •  Headache and Nervousness
  •  Chills 
  •  Tiredness 
  •  Lower back pain



 It is the absence of menstrual flow. There are mainly two types:

Primary amenorrhea

  • Menarche does not occur at age 16 with pubertal age 14 but lacks secondary sexual characteristics.
  • Caused by chromosomal disorder, transverse vaginal septum.

Secondary amneorrhea

  • Menstruation stops for three months in women with a previously established regular menstrual cycle.
  • It is caused by lactation, pregnancy, ovarian cyst, excessive exercise, inadequate nutrition.

Premenstrual syndrome

It is defined as a cluster of distressing physical and behavioral symptoms that occur in a menstrual cycle and are followed by a symptom-free period. It is a group of disorders with psychological, physical, behavioral symptoms.

Symptoms include irritability, depressed mood, breast tenderness, and abdominal bloating related to menstruation.



  • Hormonal imbalance
  •  Psychological factors
  •  Environmental factors
  •  Nutritional status
  •  Age

Signs and symptoms

  • Abdominal fullness
  •  Breast swelling and tenderness
  •  Headache
  •  Backache
  •  Vertigo
  •  Weight gain
  •  Palpitation
  •  Thirst
  •  Fatigue, Labile mood
  •  Irritability, Decreased concentration
  •  Anxiety, Crying spell
  •  Lethargy

Suggested read: How To Explain Endometriosis Pain?

Risk factor

Age plays an important role in menstrual disorders. Girls who menstruate at the age of 11 or younger are at increased risk of severe pain, continued menstrual cycle disorder.

Weight: Being overweight and underweight increases painful periods. 

Menstrual cycle and flow: Longer and heavy menstrual cycle and painful cramps.

Pregnancy history: Women who are pregnant are at risk of menorrhagia, women who are not yet pregnant are at risk of dysmenorrhea.

Smoking: Smoking chances of heavy periods 

  • stress
  • Exercise
  • Anemia
  • Osteoporosis
  • infertility

You must read this article : Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB)


  • Your medical history helps determine health care
  • Any medical condition can cause menstrual problems.
  • Family history of menstrual problems.
  • History of pelvic pain.
  • Past or current contraceptive use.
  • Sexual history.
  • blood test
  • Ultrasound and Sonohysterography
  • laparoscopy


Adjusting the diet, starting about 14 days before the period, helps some women with mild menstrual disorders such as cramps. A healthy diet should include plenty of grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables. You should maintain regular body hygiene.

Here are a few hand-picked guides for you to read next:

Which medications do you use to treat yourself from menstrual disorder? Let me know in the comments below.

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