Mitral Valve Stenosis: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

The Mitral valve is the narrowing of the mitral valve. It is an obstruction of blood flowing from the left atrium into the left ventricle during diastole. 

The mitral valve is placed on the left side of the heart between the two chambers: the ventricle and atrium. The ventricle is the lower chamber, and the atrium is the upper chamber.

Mitral valve stenosis can lead to various issues, including fatigue, difficulty in breathing, blood clots, and heart failure.

Rheumatic fever is the main leading cause of mitral valve stenosis. Rheumatic fever is prevalent in some countries, but it’s rare in the United States due to early recognition or treatment of streptococcal infection.

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Table of Contents

Mitral valve stenosis causes

In other cases, babies are born with a mitral valve that causes a problem over time. Autoimmune diseases have lupus, which also may rarely cause mitral valve stenosis.

Rheumatic Fever

Some complications with a sore throat, rheumatic fever can damage the mitral valve. Mitral valve stenosis symptoms might not show up for years.

Also see: Is Rheumatic Fever Contagious? | Scarlet Fever vs Rheumatic Fever

Calcium deposits

As age progresses, calcium deposits can build up around the mitral valve (annulus), leading to mitral valve stenosis.

Some other causes of the mitral valve include.

    • Severe mitral annular or leaflet calcification.
    • Endocarditic vegetation.
    • Degenerative calcification of an implanted tissue prosthetic heart valve.
    • Congenital disabilities of the mitral valve.
    • Tumors.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus.
    • Rheumatic endocarditis.

Signs and symptoms

  • Haemoptysis (pulmonary congestion, pulmonary embolism).
  • Cough (pulmonary congestion) .
  • Chest pain (pulmonary hypertension) .
  • Thrombo embolic complications (e.g., stroke, ischemic limb).
  • Atrial fibrillation. Breathlessness – Reduced lung compliance due to chronic pulmonary venous congestion .
  • Fatigue – low cardiac output .
  • Oedema, ascites (right heart failure) .
  • Palpitation (atrial fibrillation).

Diagnosed mitral valve stenosis

There is some test that doctor may use to diagnose mitral valve stenosis.

    • ECG.
    • Chest X-ray.
    • Doppler echocardiography.
    • Echocardiography.
    • Cardiac catheterization.

Management

Medical management

  • Systemic embolism: anticoagulants. 
  • Atrial fibrillation: ventricular rate control by digoxin, β-blockers, or rate-limiting calcium antagonists. 
  • Pulmonary congestion: diuretic therapy .
  • Provide antibiotic prophylaxis to treat endocarditis.

Surgical management

  • Mitral valvuloplasty.
  • Valve replacement.

Complication

Complications may include:

 

Conclusion

Your doctor suggests you for changing your diet, lifestyle change:

  • Alcohol
  • Salt
  • Caffeine

You have to maintain the weight that is healthy for you. The doctor will instruct you for exercise to help you to get fit and healthy.

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