What Is Mood Disorder?: Types, Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment

Mood swings are the familiar phenomena according to the situation, but mood change is if mood change symptoms are more than weeks or months, then it will be considered a mood disorder.

Mood changes behavior affects the day-to-day functioning or work of the individual.

Depression and bipolar mood disorder is a common disorder. Depression is a common mental illness nowadays, and it occurs due to any crisis. Sadness, death of a loved one, any psychological trauma.

A patient with a mood disorder has the full or partial manic and depressive syndrome.

Here is complete information about Treatment For Bipolar Disorder you should definitely read. 

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Table of Contents

Types of mood disorders

  • Manic episode
  • Depressive episode

Manic episode:

In mania, the main features are hyperactivity, mood change, and self-important ideas—a person believes himself or herself ample or has supernatural power. 

Depressive episode·

In that people have sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, guilty feelings. It seems twice as frequently in women as in men.

Also see: Major Depressive Disorder With Psychotic Features

Other mood disorders

Bipolar Mood Disorder

  • Stage of sadness, mania in the same patient at different times. A bipolar mood disorder classifies into bipolar I and bipolar II disorder (DSMIV).

Bipolar I

  • A person with cyclic episodes of having mania and depression in that person has at least one episode of mania with overactivity, irritable mood, and at least one episode of depression inpatient life with grief, sadness, and worthless symptoms at a different interval in life.

Bipolar II

  • In that patient is having episodes of hypomania and severe depression.
  • Bipolar II mood disorder is the cyclic episode of hypomania and severe depression.
  • Hypo manic mood is not a stage of extreme manic mood, but it is an elevated mood than the everyday mood. Elevated mood cause problem with daily work and socialization.
  • Severe depression is the same as Bipolar-I disorder.

Must read: Mania And Hypomania: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment

Causes of bipolar mood disorder:

  • Genetic factors:
  • Biochemical factors
  • Neuroendocrine factors
  • Brain imaging

I also covered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Bipolar Disorder in depth. Must read.

Genetic factors: 

  • Children with one parent having bipolar disorder have a risk of 27% of lifetime risk; children with both parents having bipolar disorder are 74%.
  • The danger in monozygotic twins is 65%, and dizygotic twins are 20%. 

Biochemical factors:

  • Catecholamine’s abnormality (increased nor-epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in mania and (decreased nor-epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in depression
  • Acetylcholine and GABA may also play a role.

Neuroendocrine factors:

  • Hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease, and Addison’s disease. Like endocrine disorder lead to bipolar mood disorder.

Recurrent Depressive Disorder

  • In that is having mild, moderate, severe depression along with psychotic symptoms.

Read: Is Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety A Mental Illness?

In mild to moderate depression:

  • Sadness
  • Sad facial expression
  • Slow thought process

In moderate to severe depression:

  • Suicidal tendency
  • Hallucination
  • Delusion
  • Self-centric

Persistent Mood Disorder

Must see this article: Dysthymia Depression: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Cyclothymia:

  • The patient is having mood symptoms for more than two years.
  • In which there mild elation or mild depressive mood. Significant and low mood change symptoms.
  • Hypomanic patients will have excessive physical activity, agitation, irritable mood, poor judgment, and low concentration.

Read: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For ADHD Child

Dysthymia :

  • (Neurotic/ reactive depression) is a chronic, mild depressive state persisting for months or years? It is less severe than a central depression. In dysthymia person has suicidal ideation, social work is affected, poor judgment, and memory impairment.
  •  

Treatment of mood disorder

  • Antidepressants
  • ECT
  • Lithium
  • Antipsychotics
  • Other mood stabilizers 
  • Amitriptyline
  • Nortryptyline
  • Clomipramine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Paroxetine
  • Sertraline
  • Escitalopram
  • Mirtazapine

This article might be helpful: Antidepressant Drugs Classification

Lithium

  • Drug of choice for a manic episode and preventing further attacks in bipolar disorder.
  • 1-2 week period lag before appreciable improvement.
  • Usual dose 900-1500mg of LiCO3 per day.
  • Low therapeutic index.
  • Plasma levels >2mEq/L is toxic, and 2.5-3mEq/L may be lethal. 
  • Acute toxicity symptoms are muscle twitchings, drowsiness, delirium, coma and convulsions, vomiting, severe diarrhea, albuminuria, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmia.
  • Before starting lithium therapy, CBC, ECG, urine routine, RFT, TFT should do. 

To learn more, you can read: Lithium is Bipolar Disorder Drug: Side Effects and Dosage

Antipsychotics

  • Risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, haloperidol, and chlorpromazine can be used.

Check out: Antipsychotic Drugs Are Used To Treat..

Indications

Other mood stabilizers

  • Sodium valproate (1000-3000mg/day)
  • Carbamazepine (600-1600mg/day) and oxcarbazepine 
  • Lorazepam and clonazepam
  • Topiramate 
  • Lamotrigine

Conclusion

Keep in mind that the intensity of a change in mood can vary. Experiencing different emotions is a part of life. If you have occasional mood swings, you may need to change your lifestyle to get a normal feeling.

You should take mood changes that change your behavior and negatively affect your life or those around you. Contact your doctor if you feel that your mood is changing.

A few other articles that you might be interested in:

Do you have any questions about choosing the best treatment for early and long lasting recovery? Ask in the comments!

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