Gastrointestinal Polyps: Causes, Risk, Test and Treatment

Gastrointestinal Polyps are abnormal tissue increases that often look like small lumps or small mushroom-like stalks. Most polyps are small and less than half an inch wide.

Gastrointestinal Polyps are most typical in the colon, but in some places, it is also possible to develop polyps

  • The ear canal, cervix, nose, uterus, stomach

Some polyps are benign, meaning they are non-dependent. But because it is caused by abnormal cell growth, they can eventually become malignant or cancerous.

cervical polyp
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Table of Contents


Most polyps are adenomas, benign but considered premalignant; < 1% become malignant, but all colorectal cancers arise from these polyps.

Polyp types include tubular, villous, or tubular villous Familial polyposis is uncommon autosomal dominant genetic disorder polyps.

Large intestine and rectum most common GI site affected by cancer.

Also see: Anorectal Malformations: causes, Symptoms, Test and Treatment

Symptoms of gastrointestinal polyps

some common symptoms of Gastrointestinal Polyps    :

  • Hearing loss and bleeding from the ears
  • Bleeding during menstruation or sex, or and discharge
  • Infertility, vaginal bleeding
  • Abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea
  • Cold, headache, loss of smell
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blood in urine, frequent urination

You must read this article: Gastro Intestinal Bleeding: Symptoms, Causes, Test and Treatment

Cause of gastrointestinal polyps

Some well-known causes include:

  • Inflammation
  • A foreign object
  • Cyst
  • Tumor
  • Variation in the genes of colon cells
  • Stomach inflammation
  • Excess estrogen

I have Already covered: How To Treat Ovarian Cyst? must read.

Risk factor

Those who smoke are at risk for bladder polyps. Women over the age of 40 and women who have had children are more likely to develop uterine polyps.

The risk is found in women 20 years of age and older and women who have increased premenopausal cervical polyps.

People who strain their vocal cords properly or have acid reflux are at risk for throat polyps.

Some risk factors include are : 

  • High fat, low fiber diet
  • Age over 50 years
  • Family history of colon polyps and cancer
  • Tobacco and alcohol
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Obese
  • No exercise
  • Age – middle to old age
  • Stomach infections
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis, genetic syndrome
  • Sinus infections
  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Aspirin sensitivity

Diagnosis gastrointestinal polyps

Your doctor will give a physical examination and ask questions about your symptoms and medical. If your doctor suspects polyps, he usually uses imaging such as X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scans to see.

If you have a Gastrointestinal polyp, your doctor will do a biopsy to see if it is cancerous.

Pap tests are performed to check for polyps in the vagina and cervix.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or endoscopy: for the small intestine, stomach.

A biopsy of the area that is easy to reach can find the sample under a microscope.

Colonoscopy for polyps in the large intestine.

The back of your mouth is checking with a mirror and check your vocal cords.

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Treatment of gastrointestinal polyps

Some polyps do not require treatment, and others can be surgically removed to protect against the future development of cancer.

Treatment for polyps depends on different factors:

Polyps are cancerous or not. Polyps are found where they are located and their shape.

In the case of colorectal polyps, the doctor removes the polyps using a colonoscopy. And colonoscopy occurs when the doctor uses a thin tube attached to a camera to look at your rectum and large intestine and the inside.

Hormone agonists may release progestin and gonadotropin-releasing hormones for polyps containing hormones such as cervical and uterine polyps. These drugs make your body more hormones to shrink or reduce polyps.

Collaborative care

Diagnosis is base on colonoscopy; Most reliable since it allows inspection of the entire colon with biopsy or polypectomy if indicated. Repeat every three years.


People with gastrointestinal polyps usually have no symptoms. Most colon polyps are malignant, and some types can be cancerous Polyp removal is the best way to treat Gastrointestinal polyps and stop the growth of cancer.

People at risk of colon polyps should be screened regularly for those over 50 years of age.

If a person has polyps, he should have a checkup and lifestyle changes to avoid it.

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