What is Spinal cord Injury?: Cure, Symptoms, Causes

(Last Updated On: December 19, 2021)

What is Spinal Cord Injury ?

 Spinal cord injury is damage or trauma to the spinal cord that leads to a loss of function like mobility or feeling.

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how does spinal cord injury affect the body ?
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Table of Contents

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Causes and risk factors

  • Traumatic injury Fall
  • Motor vehicle accidents
  • Sports injury
  • Industrial accident spun shot injury 
  • Assault
  • Act of violent infectious condition arthritis Osteoporosis.

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Types and their symptoms

Cervical (Neck) Injuries

  • Breathing difficulties
  • Loss of normal bowel and bladder control
  • Numbness
  • Sensory changes
  • Paralysis
  • Spasticity (increased muscle tone)
  • Extreme pain in the neck

Thoracic (Chest  Leval Injuries)

  • Loss of normal bowel and bladder control
  • Numbness
  • Sensory changes
  • Spasticity (increased muscle tone)
  • Weakness,
  • Paraplegia
  • Paraparesis(weakness in the leg)
  • Upper back pain

Lumbar Sacral (Lower Back) Injuries

  • Loss of normal bowel and bladder control
  • Numbness
  • Pain
  • Sensory changes
  • Spasticity
  • Weakness and paralysis
  • Three main patterns of spinal cord injury

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Central cord syndrome

It is a common cervical spinal cord injury the patient has loss of motion and sensation in arms and hands

Anterior cord syndrome

  • Anterior cord syndromeis an incomplete cord syndrome that affects 2/3 spinal cord—resulting in motor paralysis that leads to below the lesion level and the motor paralysis, loss of pain, and temperature.

Brown cord syndrome

  • Brown-Square syndrome is a rare neurological condition in that lesions in the spinal cord can lead to paralysis to one side of the body and loss of sensation on the body’s opposite side. 

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Diagnostic tests

  • History and physical examination
  • Spine x-ray
  • CT SCAN and MRI
  • Myelogram

Emergency cure

  • Immobilization
  • Stabilization of life-threatening injuries
  • Transportation to a medical facility
  • Careful monitoring of vital signs and airways
  • Keep patient immobilize with a cervical collar, sandbags, and rigid spine board

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Medical Management

  • Respiratory management
  • Pharmacologic management: corticosteroid for swelling
  • Immobilization
  • Supportive therapy

Pain medication

  • Botox injection for muscles spasticity
  • Medication to improve bowel and bladder function
  • Physical therapy is advised.
  • Catheterization

Surgical management

  • Surgery may be performed with two-goal:
  • Relieve any pressure on the spine
  • Remove bone or foreign body and correct herniated disk or fractured vertebrae,
  • A combination of metal screws, roads, and plates may be necessary to hold vertebrae together and stabilize them until the bones heal.

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Conclusion

The spinal cord affects around 250-500,000 people worldwide every year that refers to damage from trauma, disease, or degeneration. These conditions can have a substantial impact on day-to-day activities and quality of life.

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