What Causes Epilepsy In Children?

What Causes Epilepsy In Children?

The problem of epilepsy nowadays is suffering not only in the elders but also the children. More than five crore people throughout the world are troubled by the problem of epilepsy

Talking about children, in general, one in 20 children may have epileptic seizures. However, epileptic seizures make the parents nervous. But its treatment is available.

Some symptoms start appearing in children when they have an early onset of epilepsy as children’s muscles start getting cramps.

Here is a complete guide on: Is Epilepsy Genetic? | Is Epilepsy A Disability must read.

Epilepsy In Children
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Table of Contents

Types of epilepsy

There are two types of epilepsy in children.

Generalized seizure 

A generalized the seizure occurs only when epileptic activity affects both sides of your brain.

There are subtypes of generalized seizure:

  1. Tonic-clonicseizures: It is the mosta frequent form of childhood epilepsy.
  2. Atonic seizures: Sometimes, a person collapses suddenly due to loss of muscle tone.
  3. Clonic seizures: Clonicseizures often cause jerky movements, often in the face or leg and one arm.
  4. Myoclonicseizures: This type often causes our body and legs to be a sudden jerk or twitch.

Partial seizure

Simple partialseizure

In that, one side of the brain is initially affected.

The patient may have a hallucination; feelings of fear, anxiety can occur Complex partial seizures.

Manifested with impaired consciousness and with automatism.

It includes psychomotor or temporal lobe seizures.

Complex partialseizures

Its symptoms are also somewhat like those of Absence Seizure. One who occasionally seizures (year -two years) can live an everyday life entirely by getting the proper treatment and eating medicine. Still, if he is repeatedly (once a week or daily), hisbrain and Emotions may be affected.

Epilepsy is a disorder in which a human has repeated seizures.

Epilepsy is recurrent, episodic, paroxysmal transient disturbances of brain function due to abnormal electrical activity of the neurons.”

What causes epilepsy in children?

Healthcare professionals also do not know the exact cause of epilepsy. Some people inherit genetic factors that make them more likely to get epilepsy.

  • Head trauma
  • Brain condition, including tumors and stroke
  • AIDS
  • Prenatal injury
  • Developmental disorder
  • Lack of oxygen to the brain
  • Serious illness

According to the CDC, epilepsy is the most trusted Source to develop in a child under two years and adults over 65 years.

Must read: What is Infantile Autism?: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment.

Sign & symptoms of epilepsy

  • Jerking movement of the arms & legs
  • Stiffening of the body
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Breathing problems
  • Loss of bowel & bladder control
  • Rapid eye blinking
  • Irritability
  • Emotional changes
  • Drowsiness
  • Hallucination
  • Sweating
  • Muscle weakness
  • Confusion
  • Biting the tongue
  • Falling

I also wrote a tutorial on  How to Stop Extreme Nail Biting? you can read.

Diagnostic evaluation

History collection

Physical examination

  • Assessment of cardiac, neurological & mental status.

Neurological examination

  • To assess the sensory neuron, motor response, reflexes cranial nerve, muscle strength, coordination & memory.  

Blood test 

  • To identify any causes and infection.

Urine analysis

  • May do urine tests to look for infection, metabolic disorders, or abnormal level of drug, which may be responsible for seizures

EEG

  • To assess the risk of seizure recurrence type & epilepsy syndrome.

X-ray of the skull

  • X-ray is for diagnosing tumors, infection, foreign bodies, or bone injuries.

CT scan

  • It is used to determine whether an acute neurological lesion or illness caused a seizure.

MRI

  • Preferred brain picture in that seizures may have started into a particular area of the part. 

Management of epilepsy

  • To provide a ketogenic diet.
  • To provide IV therapy.
  • To encourage bed rest.
  • To monitor the vital signs, intake output chart & neuro vital signs.
  • To take seizure precautions.
  • If the patient remains unconscious & unresponsive, a cuffed endotracheal tube is inserting.
  • To maintain airway patency.

Pharmacological management

Diphenylhydantoni 

  • 5-8 mg/kg/day in twodoses
  • Indication: tonic cloni, atonic, akinetic & partial seizures.

Carbamazepine

10-20 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 divided dose.

Indication:- tonic clonic , atonic, akinetic & partial seizures.

Diazepam

0.2 mg/kg/dose IV

Indication:- status epilepticus

Sodium valporate

15-20 mg/ kg/ day in 3 to 4 divided doses

Indication: Broad spectrum anticonvulsive agent.

Ethosuximide

10-20 mg/ kg/ day in two doses

Indication

Absence seizure

Surgical management

Neurosurgery is an indication in some cases of violent disorders, especially in anatomical lesions like a brain tumor, hematoma & medically intractable seizure disorder.

The likely surgical interventions include corpus, focal resection of part of the cerebral cortex such as the temporal lobe, a different temporal region involved as epileptogenic foci.

Conclusion

There are some reasons with the help of which you can avoid epilepsy such as,

  • To avoid head injury, wear a helmet while riding a bicycle and a motorcycle.
  • To prevent epilepsy from birth injuries, take perinatal treatment.
  • Controlling the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Do let me know what other health tips you follow to avoid epilepsy? Share your tips in the comments below!

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