What Is Ovarian Cyst? | How To Treat Ovarian Cyst?

What is Ovarian Cyst?

Ovaries are the organs of the reproductive system of women. They are located in the lower abdomen on either side of the uterus. Women have two ovaries. The main function of the ovary is to produce eggs and hormones called estrogen and progesterone.

An ovarian cyst is a cyst formed in the ovary or ovary that is of a closed sac shape. Ovarian cysts are filled with fluid.

Most ovarian cysts present little or no discomfort and harmlessness, but some may cause a problem like rupturing, pain, bleeding, and that surgery is required.

An ovarian cyst is very common, particularly in women between the ages of 30 to 60.

Can ovarian cyst cause hormonal imbalance ?
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Table of Contents

Risk factor of ovarian cyst

  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Endometriosis
  • Increased upper body fat distribution 
  • Infertility
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Breast cancer

Also see: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB): Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Pathophysiology of ovarian cyst

  • During ovulation, the ovary produces a hormone.
  • This hormone makes the follicles (sacs containing immature eggs and fluid) grow and egg within it mature.
  • Once the egg is ready, the follicle rupture, and The egg is released.
  • Once the egg is released, the follicle change into a smaller sac called the Corpus luteum Ovarian 
  • Cyst occurs as a result of the follicle not rupturing, the follicle not changing into its smaller size.
  • Ovarian cyst occurs as a result of the follicle not rupturing, the follicle not changing into its smaller size. 
  • An ovarian cyst can be as peas, or larger than an orange.

You must read this article: All About Ovarian Cancer

Types of ovarian cyst

1. Functional cysts 

There are two types of Functional cysts

  • Follicle cyst
  • Corpus luteum cyst

Follicle cyst

  • The formation of this cyst is during the ovulation when an egg released into the fallopian tube.
  • When follicles fail to rupture, it causes follicle cyst.
  • This cyst grows from 1.5 to 2 inches in diameter.

Corpus luteum cyst

  • When an egg released from the follicle, it produces the estrogen and progesterone hormones for the conception.
  • The fluid accumulates in the follicles, and it causes the corpus luteum to grow inside the cyst. 

2. Hemorrhagic cyst

This type of cyst occurs when bleeding within a cyst. A symptom such as abdominal pain on one side of the body may be present.

3. Cystadenoma

  • A cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that develops from ovarian tissue. They filled with mucosa type fluid material.
  • Cystadenoma becomes very large & 12 inches or more in diameter.

It has two types 

  1. Serous – cystadenoma filled within the watery fluid.
  2. Mucinous – cystadenoma filled with thick & sticky material.

4. Dermoid cysts

This is also known as ovarian neoplasm and consists of skin-related issues such as teeth, hair, bones, and fluid-like cystadenomas.

It affects the younger women, and it may grow six inches in diameter.     

5. Endometriosis cyst 

When endometrium tissues grow inside the ovary, and it causes a fluid-filled cyst. It affects women during the reproductive year.

6. Polycystic ovaries

A condition in which follicles never erupt from ovaries.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with infertility, abdominal bleeding, the incidence of miscarriage and pregnancy-related complication

Sign & symptoms of ovarian cyst

  • Intense abdominal pain
  • Abdominal distension
  • Pelvic pain 
  • Heavy menstruation
  • Increase facial hair
  • Weight gain
  • Severe menstrual cramp

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Diagnostic evaluation of ovarian cyst

  • Medical history
  • Physical examination
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Laparoscopy 
  • Cancer Antigen 125

How to treat ovarian cyst

  • An ovarian cyst treated with pain reliever including NSAIDs usually best when taken at the first sign of the pain.
  • Acetaminophen
  • A warm bath or hot application applied to the pelvic area. 
  • Limiting strenuous activity may reduce the risk of cyst rupture.

Surgical management

Functional cyst

  • Functional ovarian cyst typically disappears within 60 days within any treatment.
  • The doctor does require the women to return after two menstrual cycles to get a pelvic exam.
  • If the cyst is growing above two inches, then laparoscopic removal of a cyst is required.
  • If the cyst is still present and growing ( over 2 inches ), the doctor may recommend a laparoscopy to remove it.
  • If the cyst comes & goes, the doctor may prescribe birth control pills.
  • These pills reduce the hormone and prevent the formation of a large cyst. 

Polycystic ovaries

  • A significant symptom of polycystic ovaries is infertility and whether the women are trying to conceive or not determine the treatment.
  • if the women are trying to conceive and have fertility problems, the doctor will prescribe Clomid, which stimulates ovulation

I have already covered Infertility in male and female in depth:

Endometrial cyst, Cystadenomas, and Dermoid cyst.

  • This treatment is to remove the cyst surgically. If the cyst is small enough, the doctor can remove it via laparoscopy.
  • If the cyst is over 2.5 inches in diameter, the available procedure is listed below:
  1. Ovarian cystectomy – Removing the cyst without removing the ovary
  2. Partial oophorectomy – Removal of the cyst and portion of the ovary
  3. Salpingo – oophorectomy – Removal of the cyst, ovary & fallopian tube

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