Ovarian cancer is a disease in that abnormal growth and division of cells within one or both ovaries- a reproductive gland in which the ova, eggs, and female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are made.
Table of Contents
Types of ovarian cancer
Epithelial tumours: cancerous cells arise from the outer sides of the ovary.
Stromal tumours: stromal tumours develop from connective tissue cells that help form the ovary structure and produce the hormones if cancer has spread through the women who need chemotherapy.
Germ cell tumours: Tumours that arise from germ cells account for 15% of all ovarian cancers.
Risk and factors
Personal history of cancers: women who have had cancer of the breast, uterus, colon, or rectum have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
Menopausal hormonal therapy: some studies suggest that women who take estrogen by themselves for more than ten years can increase the risk of ovary cancer.
Age: the risk of developing ovarian cancers increases with age, usually around 51 yr.
Family history: a family history of colorectal, uterus breast, and ovarian cancers grow your risk factors for developing ovarian cancer.
Fertility drugs: ovulation stimulating drugs can cause ovarian cancer.
I have already covered: Hormonal Replacement Therapy Menopause
Signs and symptoms
Ovarian cancer symptoms include:
- Abnormalities in menstruation
- Back or leg pain
- Abdominal swelling
- Urinary frequency
- Loss of appetite
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Where does your back hurt with ovarian cancer
- Salpingo – oophorectomy
Chemotherapy is the use of any drug to treat any disease”.
It’s often shortened to “chemo.”
Radiation and surgery therapy remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a particular area, but chemo can work throughout the body.
Damage DNA by causing breaks in the double-stranded helix cells.
Antitumor antibiotics act directly to DNA, thus inhibiting the synthesis of DNA &interfering with the transcription of RNA.
Selectively attach to estrogen receptors, causing downregulation of them inhibiting tumor growth. Also known as SERMs( selective estrogen receptor modulators)
Routes of chemotherapy :
- oral chemotherapy medications that can be swallowed – come in various oral forms. (Pills, tablets, capsules, liquid).
- Intravenousroute: intravenous administration of chemotherapy allows rapid entry into the bloodstream.
When most drugs are easily absorbed into the bloodstream.
- Subcutaneous injections involve the use of short needles such as those used by people with diabetes to inject insulin. the subcutaneous injection goes into the skin and muscles but does not enter the whole muscle layer.
- The route of chemotherapy is used when drugs need to reach the CSF. The body’s” blood-brain barrier does not allow many chemotherapy drugs given systematically to get to the CSF.
Intra-arterial routes: intra-arterial
- Drugs are given into the artery that supplies blood to the tumor and affected areas.
- Some chemotherapy medications can be delivered directly into the abdominal cavity.
- intravascular drugs given using a urinary catheter now into the bladder.
- chemotherapy can be given into the pleural cavity ( space between the lung and lining of the lung).
Side effects of chemotherapy
- Nausea – vomiting
- Burning micturation
- Altered consciousness
- G.I.bleeding, etc.
Complication of chemo
- Immunosuppression and myelosuppression.
- Neutropenic enterocolitis.
- Gastrointestinal distress.
- Peripheral neuropathy.
- Cognitive impairment.
- Organ damage.
It uses high-energy waves or particles like x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or protons to destroy or damage cancer cells.
Other names for radiation therapy are:
- irradiation or
- x-ray therapy.
Different types of ionizing radiation
- Electromagnetic radiation
- Gamma rays
- Particulate radiation
- Alpha particles
- Radioactive produced by
- cobalt60- emits gamma rays
- Cyclotron has- neutrons & protons
- A linear accelerator – generates ionizing radiation from electricity & multiple energies.
- The adverse effect of radiotherapy
- Chromosomal disruption
- Impair protein synthesis function necessary for survival.
- Skin reactions
- General weakness
- Low blood counts
- Eating problems
- Complications of radiotherapy
- Persistent drowsiness & apathy
- Neurocognitive impairment
Types of radiation therapy
Teletherapy ( external)
- External beam radiation, also called teletherapy, is administered by a machine at a certain distance from the body’s specific area.
- Depending on the number of energy, X-rays can be used to destroy cancer cells at the body’s surface.
- Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment. In that, radiation is given internally near the tumor area.
- It consists of the implantation or insertion of radioactive materials directly into the tumor(interstitial) or proximity adjacent to cancer (intracavity/intraluminal).
Immunotherapy for colorectal cancer
- it helps the body to fight against the cancer cell; it is made up of the body cells and tissues.
It is the combination of hormones of the body and drugs that treat cancerous cells.
Cancers that can be hormone-sensitive are Breast cancer, prostate cancer, uterine or endometrial cancer.
Major classes of hormonal agents
- antiestrogen is a substance that blocks the production or utilization of estrogens.
- Antiestrogen has stopped some cancer cells from growing and is used to prevent and treat breast cancer.
- adrenocorticoids manage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia.
- It may help reduce edema of the patient with primary or metastatic CNS tumors.
- estrogen is the family of hormones that promote female sex characteristics, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy.
- It is used in the management of a patient with prostate cancer.
- anti androgen blocks the body’s ability to use any androgens. It is useful in prostate cancer its affects the receptors of the prostate cells nuclei and prevents the reception of testosterone.
- progestin’s are compounds related to the steroid hormone progesterone. Progestin is used in the management of breast and endometrial cancer.
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone:
- the release of LHRH from the hypothalamus from the pituitary gland.
- It is used in the treatment of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.
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- Hormone Replacement Therapy Male To Female
- Gastrointestinal Polyps: Symptoms, Causes, Risk, Test and Treatment
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